In Mexico, about 14.5 million people suffer from this metabolic disease.
Fasting blood glucose values of 99 mg/dl or less are normal, but if they exceed the figures of 100 to 125 mg/dl they indicate that prediabetes exists and those of 126 mg/dl or greater indicate that He has diabetes.
This condition is caused by overweight and obesity that, over time, cause damage such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, cerebral vascular disease, chronic kidney failure, fatty liver, retinopathy and diabetic neuropathy, among others.
It is estimated that there are 14.5 million people with diabetes in Mexico, of which 70% are not adherent to treatment.
Furthermore, around 90% of people diagnosed with this metabolic disease have two or more comorbidities, the most common being high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, or elevated cholesterol and triglycerides, a condition that can be reversed by changing eating and physical activity habits.
Jorge Horacio Trevilla, nutritionist at the Indianilla Specialty Clinic of the ISSSTEhighlights that diabetes and obesity are due to various causes, some non-modifiable such as genetics, and the most important have to do with changing behaviors that can prevent the disease or promote its control.
“It has a lot to do with the habits you have in your life: if you are sedentary, if you do some type of exercise, if you fast for many hours; You add that to the fact that you are already prone to developing it. We propose to reeducate the population on this issue,” says the specialist.
Stress, explains the nutritionist, can act as a trigger. “When they say ‘I was scared and I got diabetes’, it has to do with the fact that high levels of stress cause metabolic acidity in the body and that causes cortisol to rise, which causes the amount of sugar in blood increases and insulin cannot supply more energy to the cell, causing hyperglycemia.
Other harmful habits are “prolonged fasting. There are those who believe that by stopping eating for hours they will lose weight; On the contrary, the little you eat is stored as fat and, the more obesity, the more insulin resistance,” he explains.
He points out that it is advisable to prefer natural foods over ultra-processed ones and preferably avoid the consumption of soft drinks and sugary drinks. “The ideal diet for diabetics is to consume food every three or four hours, with plenty of fiber to avoid hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.”
For every amount of fruit we consume we should eat two vegetables, to compensate for sugar with fiber; This should be accompanied by the daily intake of one and a half to two liters of natural water, he says. “A healthy diet must have fruits, vegetables, cereals, legumes and proteins, where the variety of colors in foods cannot be missing because the combination is more nutritious.”
Alert that Mexico occupies first place in childhood obesity and second in adults; Seven out of ten Mexicans are overweight and obese, which indicates a greater propensity to develop diabetes mellitus. That is why it is important that from childhood we ensure that we provide adequate and quality food rations to our children.
The cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes is two to six times higher than in a healthy person. Given its strong impact on health, this disease reduces life expectancy by up to ten years. “Therefore, good glycemic control, associated with the control of cardiovascular risk factors, reduces the probability of the appearance of complications such as myocardial infarction, stroke and kidney damage, while preventing their progression,” the study indicates. Dr. Mike Vivas, medical director of Novo Nordisk Mexico.
“Currently, the approach to diabetes focuses on a comprehensive, individualized and multifactorial approach, which must go beyond glycemic control as the only objective. One of the most important challenges in the comprehensive treatment of diabetes is to prevent patients from having a cardiovascular event. Now we seek to reduce the risk of patients presenting vascular complications at the heart, brain and kidney level,” he points out.
“In this sense, one of the antidiabetic therapies that has demonstrated comprehensive or holistic benefit in glycemic control, with beneficial impact on weight, cardiovascular risk factors and reduction of cardiovascular events, are glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (arGLP1),” adds Vivas.
“In addition to adequate treatment that controls blood glucose level, body weight and reduces cardiovascular risk, which must be indicated by the doctor, it is important that patients have a healthy diet and avoid the consumption of foods with high content of saturated and trans fats, sugar and salt; engage in regular physical activity; stop smoking, and maintain continuous monitoring of your blood glucose levels,” recommends the medical director.
David Victor, liver specialist at Houston Methodist Hospital, emphasizes that “the liver is one of the most important organs in the body. It is the recycling center where waste created during the daily functioning of the body is eliminated. The liver helps detoxify the body by breaking down medications and harmful substances. Produces bile that helps digestion; This organ is where many nutrients we need are created, processed and stored. It is not surprising that the liver must be in optimal condition to perform all these tasks.”
The doctor states that “obesity, high cholesterol, metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome can damage liver function by generating fatty liver, a situation that causes liver inflammation that, over time, can progress to fibrosis and ultimately cirrhosis, which is “permanent liver damage.”
The hepatologist warns that “of people with fatty liver, only a small percentage ends up with real liver damage. This is why, if you have risk factors, you should talk to your doctor to evaluate whether it is necessary to have routine blood tests. As well as adopting a healthy diet such as reducing sugar, limiting or avoiding alcohol, and eating whole, fresh foods.”