The Mexico’s independence It is one of the most significant dates for Mexicans. In order to understand the process that led to New Spain want to stop being part of the Crown of Spain, it is important to remember the internal and external causes that triggered the armed movement.
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Internal and external factors came together to start the war for Mexico’s independence. It was a long process that took place during the three centuries of rule of the Spanish Crown after the conquest of Mexico-Tenochtitlán.
In order to understand the reasons that gave rise to the Independence, we have to review what happened in the New Spain and beyond the borders of the viceroyalty.
External causes of the Independence of Mexico
Among the external causes of Mexico’s independenceWe find Napoleon Bonaparte’s invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 1808. French troops entered Madrid and forced Carlos IV to abdicate the throne.
Napoleon appointed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as the new king of Spain. However, royalist groups declared that the king was Fernando VII, son of Carlos IV, thus creating an environment of uncertainty in his overseas colonies, including the New Spain.
Likewise, the revolutions of the United States (1776), France (1789) and Haiti (1804) were a source of ideological inspiration for the Hispanic colonies to seek their independence.
This gave rise to the well-known “salons” in the New Spain. These gatherings served to disseminate these ideas and seek how to deal with what was considered a Spanish monopoly.
Internal causes of New Spain
Although there are multiple factors that triggered the movement of Independence, We can point out two facts that were essential for the social outbreak to take place.
The Bourbon reforms, issued during the reigns of Fernando VI and Carlos III, were a kind of legislative amendments that sought to curb the economic independence of the Spanish colonies in America. In other words, the centralization of the state.
This caused that new taxes and new measures were imposed that caused the bankruptcy of several American companies or expelled it from the Jesuits. Likewise, there was a greater bureaucratic control of the State of the economy, of politics and it was limited to the Creole elite.
And this brings us to the social aspect. The Creole, the children of Spaniards born in the New Spain, they were considered of a lower stratum of the peninsular Spaniards.
Let us remember that in the New Spain a caste system existed, in which a good part of the population was considered inferior. Along with economic reforms, discontent within the viceroyalty it was increasing, and at the same time there was social and political unrest.
By 1809, in various provinces of the New Spain already existed a palpable agitation. The disaster of the economic reforms, the famine due to low agricultural production and the economic recession gave rise to the criollos joining the mestizos and indigenous people to seize power.
This had its climax during the early morning of September 16, 1810. Miguel Hidalgo gave the famous cry that began the armed struggle that, for 11 years, culminated in the Independence of Mexico and its consolidation as an independent nation.